Rock Art Network Qarn bint Sa’ud, Abu Dhabi
Rock Art Network Qarn bint Sa’ud, Abu Dhabi
Rock Art Network Qarn bint Sa’ud, Abu Dhabi
Unlocking a hidden landscape
Preliminary fieldwork at Qarn bint Sa’ud, Abu Dhabi
1 February 2023

George Nash, Genevieve von Petzinger, Aitor Ruiz Redondo, Juan F Ruiz Lopez and Yamandu Hibert.

Location of the Qarn bint Sa’ud escarpment
Location of the Qarn bint Sa’ud escarpment
© George Nash
In January 2022, the UAE Origins Project team undertook an extensive fieldwork programme along the cliff sections and hinterlands of Qarn bint Sa’ud (also known as Biba bint Sa’ud), a small limestone escarpment that forms part of the northern limit of the Al-Hagar Mountains. The project was set up to identify and record prehistoric sites and rock art that date from the Palaeolithic to the proto-historic periods. The focus was to explore the caves, rock shelters, overhangs and relic land surfaces that are located in the inlets that naturally cut into this isolated landmark north of the city of Al-Ain and searched for evidence of early symbolic behaviour and settlement patterns. The UAE Origins Project team explored additional areas along the Jebel Hafeet and the limestone escarpments along the Omani border further towards the east of Al Ain. It is within this part of the Arabian Peninsula where significant prehistoric rock art is found.

The Qarn bint Sa’ud stands north of the city of Al Ain (centred upon 24°23'6.35"N, 55°43'6.68"E) [Map]. The limestone outcrop is orientated NW-SE and measures 520m on its NW-SE axis by 245m E-W. The summit rises above an arid sand desert area that was wetter and lush than at present. Exposed around the outcrop among a dominant dune system is a series of relic land surfaces that have revealed extensive flint scatters that date possibly from the Middle Palaeolithic to later prehistory.

Location of the Qarn bint Sa’ud escarpment

The caves, rock overhangs and rock shelters that contain evidence of prehistoric archaeology are located within three naturally formed semi-circular enclaves [Fig 1]. Each enclave contains evidence of Bronze/Iron Age burial-ritual activity, in the form of denuded stone cairns [Figs 2 & 3]. Up to 23 burial cairns stand close to the eastern lower slopes of the rock outcrop and date between the 2nd and 4th millennium BCE. Locally, these monuments are referred to as Hafit-type tombs.

Aerial view of Qarn bint Sa’ud
Figure 1
Aerial view of Qarn bint Sa’ud
© George Nash
 
Seven of least 23 burial cairns that occupy the western hinterlands of Qarn bint Sa’ud
Figure 2
Seven of least 23 burial cairns that occupy the western hinterlands of Qarn bint Sa’ud
© George Nash
 
Seven of least 23 burial cairns that occupy the western hinterlands of Qarn bint Sa’ud
Figure 3
Seven of least 23 burial cairns that occupy the western hinterlands of Qarn bint Sa’ud
© George Nash
 
Exposed on a vertical panel, using the desk-based algorithm D-Stretch are at least three phases of imagery that include bovines, cervids and historic wassim marks
Figure 4
Exposed on a vertical panel, using the desk-based algorithm D-Stretch are at least three phases of imagery that include bovines, cervids and historic wassim marks
© George Nash
 
The cliff-face and rock shelter within the central enclave on the western flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud and views across the arid landscapes
Figure 5
The cliff-face and rock shelter within the central enclave on the western flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud and views across the arid landscapes
© George Nash
 
The cliff-face and rock shelter within the central enclave on the western flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud and views across the arid landscapes
Figure 6
The cliff-face and rock shelter within the central enclave on the western flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud and views across the arid landscapes
© George Nash

The UAE Origins Project team explored the majority of the accessible rock shelters within the eastern flank of the rock outcrop where prehistoric rock art can be found; 18 or more engraved and painted panels in total. The rock art assemblage is substantial and varied, and probably represents at least four phases of artistic endeavour, possibly extending over 7000 years of prehistoric and historic activity [Fig 4]. On the summit of the outcrop are several Iron Age stone monuments that have been reconstructed. Due to time constraints, the western flank remained unexplored.

Inspection by the team revealed that each enclave contains identical drift geomorphology, comprising a windblown dune system that extended some distance up-slope, towards three exposed limestone cliffs on the eastern flank [Figs 5 & 6]. These windblown deposits cover mainly scree (shattered stone fragments and boulders of varying sizes) that originate from the cliffs above. This scree deposit overlaid a laminated limestone bedrock. Within the hinterlands where the Bronze Age cairns are located were exposed relic land surfaces that yielded prehistoric flint and chert.

Archaeology in transit: Regional context

Lithics recovered from the eastern flank of the site (A-28). All stone artefacts show great diversity in raw materials using non-local flint and chert variants. The two larger pieces – 16 and 17 are of possible Palaeolithic age
Figure 7
Lithics recovered from the eastern flank of the site (A-28). All stone artefacts show great diversity in raw materials using non-local flint and chert variants. The two larger pieces – 16 and 17 are of possible Palaeolithic age
© George Nash
Based on fragmentary evidence around the nearby city of Al Ain and the impressive anticline of Jabel Hafeet, the archaeological record extends as far back as the Palaeolithic. It has been previously considered that the Arabian Peninsula has, since ancient times been a major land bridge between Africa and Asia, with nomadic and semi-nomadic communities using the eastern side of the Al-Hagar Mountain range in Oman as a guide to move north and eastwards, towards Jabel Hafeet and the coastal regions of the Abu Dhabi.

During the myriad human migration period and expansion events, our ancestors have settled and moved across this part of the Arabian Peninsula for many thousands of years, around the various wadis where resources were abundant. Based on paleoenvironmental evidence, the region would have been wetter and the climate less arid during the specific intervals throughout the Quaternary. Regionally, during this time there would have been a radically different landscape which was affected by dynamic sea-level and climatic change; both would have had profound effects on the environment and the flora and fauna. Within this area of the Arabian Peninsula is evidence of early human activity, as witnessed through various flint scatters and stratified sites found further to the north in the Emirate of Sharjah. In and around the eastern slopes of Qarn bint Sa’ud later prehistoric flint was recovered from relic land surfaces that stand close to many of the Bronze Age cairns.

A section of a stone vessel of unknown date found close to the eastern flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud
Figure 8
A section of a stone vessel of unknown date found close to the eastern flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud
© George Nash
A walkover survey by the team indicated the presence of flint stone tools, which could be identified based on specific artefact morphologies. While the Qarn bint Sa’ud limestone escarpment has a relative abundance of naturally occurring chert sources, these have suffered from the tectonic uplift of the Al-Hajar Mountains and have thus been fractured in-situ. This process has rendered the chert unsuitable for controlled flint knapping and stone tool manufacture. All lithic artefacts found at the base of Qarn bint Sa’ud have thus been made from non-local flint. This is to say that the raw material used for stone tool manufacture by ancient communities was imported to the site from some considerable distance.

A standard methodology was used to analyse the flint and stone artefacts that included description and photography [Figs 7 & 8]. The assemblage comprised cores, flakes, chips, bladelets and a small number of retouched tools. The lack of typical Neolithic arrowheads and associated production waste was notable. The bladelet assemblages included small (less than 10mm in width) and symmetric elongated blanks, which were struck from bladelet cores. The microlithic character of the lithic assemblage, coupled with the great variety of raw materials used may be held indicative of a highly mobile human population. Retouched tools included a variety of ad-hoc implements such as notches, retouched blanks and small end scrapers. The morphology and typological variability of the artefacts, coupled with their relatively fresh character, meaning that they did not undergo considerable alteration by environmental factors, suggests a possible mid to late Holocene age (later prehistoric). However, two flakes made on non-flint materials and advanced stages of weathering suggest that they may be considerably older and possibly Palaeolithic in date.

Looking for art

It has been known for some time that prehistoric engraved and painted rock art is present within several caves of the east-facing cliffs of Qarn bint Sa’ud; however, this intriguing imagery has been poorly recorded; partly due to the limited technology available to archaeologists at that time and the inaccessibility of some of the panels. To make sense of this unique assemblage, a preliminary photographic record was made in each cave, overhang and rock shelter, as well on those panels identified on the vertical cliff sections that occupy the eastern part of the Qarn bint Sa’ud. It should be noted that no prehistoric rock art or associated archaeology was present on the western side of the escarpment. Using a variety of photographic techniques, including high-resolution digital photography and de-correlation stretch (D-Stretch), the team identified potential hidden pigmentation and patinaed engravings that had hitherto remained undiscovered from previous expeditions.

D-Stretch is a digital desk-based enhancement tool that was developed by Jon Harman in 1995 and was originally developed as a remote sensing GIS tool by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The software comprises a multispectral image enhancement tool, exclusively based on the RGB matrix of the digital pictures, that has been specifically redeveloped to maximise colour manipulation of, say, rock art images, in particular, paintings and has been widely used by rock art specialists. An optimum enhancement is usually achieved when photographing paintings that contain various shades and hues of red, yellow and black pigmentation. Fortunately, most of the painted rock art from Qarn bint Sa’ud were made from locally sourced iron oxides. D-Stretch can usually help to distinguish between natural inorganic secretion and applied pigments produced by human agency.

Leaving an artistic signature

In 1957, a Danish team discovered prehistoric rock art in and around the caves and rock shelters of the central enclave on the eastern flank of Qarn bint Sa’ud. These sites and the smooth sections of the vertical rock face had yielded a variety of painted and engraved images which are considered to be similar in style and subject matter to rock art found in the central region of the Al-Hagar Mountains in neighbouring Oman.

A plethora of engraved images were found on sections of the central enclave cliff-face
Figure 9 to 11
A plethora of engraved images were found on sections of the central enclave cliff-face
© George Nash
The UAE Origins Project identified three independent decorated sites within the central enclave of the Qarn bint Sa’ud, on its eastern flank. Despite their proximity, there is a strong argument to suggest that they originate from several different chronological phases. One of the three sites contained a number of open-air panels that were located on the southern side of a well-weathered cliff face. The visual narrative consisted of engraved figures, including many snakes, horse and riders, feet and hand representations, mesh patterns, so-called ‘T-figures’ (what we interpret as daggers) and other images [Figs 9 to 11]. The technique used for all this imagery was pecking onto a deliberately chosen smooth silica-based surface, rather than the dominant limestone. Many of the panels were located in inaccessible places, high up above the natural floor of the base of the cliff section. It could be the case that artists would have clambered up the cliff face in order to choose a panel and place their artistic signature. Alternatively, a scaffold platform or ladder may have been erected.

Original and D-Stretch images of a building with prehistoric and Islamic elements
Figure 12 & 13
Original and D-Stretch images of a building with prehistoric and Islamic elements
© George Nash
In another section of the cliff, several accessible caves were present, and both contained engraved and painted rock art. The first cave to be explored was located within the central section of the enclave and stood immediately south of the engraved panels that contained snake imagery. The painted imagery around this cave was different in both style and theme. The painted panels were on either side of the cave entrance on accessible vertical panels. Although several images had been previously discovered, a number of new images had been found and identified using the app D-Stretch (in real-time) on a smartphone. The clearest image was located within the roof section of the cave and comprised two, maybe three painted images: all representing different chronological phases and painted using locally sourced iron oxides [Figs 12 & 13]. Previously, the archaeologist Al Tikriti had identified a possible Islamic shrine, as well as a Hafit beehive type cairn. The complete image may represent two phases of painting, the earliest phase being a Hafit tomb (as seen within the hinterland of the Qarn bint Sa’ud). An Islamic shrine or mosque (with a faint dome) is painted on top of the Hafit tomb (thus showing a later enhancement). Two sweeping red lines encase the building(s). These two lines may represent another painting phase. If we accept this interpretation, the date range for this panel would be between 2000 BCE and the historic [Islamic] period.

Painted sandal on eroded limestone, image dated from the Islamic period
Figure 14
Painted sandal on eroded limestone, image dated from the Islamic period
© George Nash
To the northwest of the entrance of the cave are several painted panels that stand c.1 m above a laminated limestone floor. One of these panels includes a single shoeprint [or sandal], probably originating from the Islamic phase and painted on a weathered limestone surface [Fig 14]. The shoeprint is considered an important motif in Islamic culture and religion.

Several metres SE of the entrance of the cave is another complex panel that includes the painted outline of several superimposed cervids and bovines that are painted over a large bull figure. The back and neck of the painted bovine appear to acknowledge the upper edge of the rock panel. A historic tribal wassim mark completed the panel narrative. The presence of bovines appears to represent an early rock art phase for this site and clearly indicates that when painted, the environment was very different to what we witness today.

Located within the northern section of the enclave is a small cave that is accessed via a narrow ledge. Much of the rock art within the cave has previously been recorded, albeit using now outdated and potentially damaging techniques. Unlike other rock panels within the immediate area of Qarn bint Sa’ud, the rock art is hidden on the walls and ceiling of the cave. The engraved and painted iconography comprises wild animals such as antelope and bovines that would have once roamed the immediate landscape, some 4,000 to 8,000 years ago.

The most visible rock art is organised into two panels, one occupying the ceiling, and the other, on a wall panel that lies close to the entrance. Both panels were recorded using photogrammetric techniques (Fig 15, Fig 16 and Fig 17).

Colleagues Dr Aitor Ruiz-Redondo and Dr Juan F. Ruiz López recording rock art in one of the caves along the eastern flank
Figure 15
Colleagues Dr Aitor Ruiz-Redondo and Dr Juan F. Ruiz López recording rock art in one of the caves along the eastern flank
© George Nash
 
Using an oblique cold lighting source to illuminate the ancient imagery
Figure 16
Using an oblique cold lighting source to illuminate the ancient imagery
© George Nash
 
Using a colour checker to correct colour deficiencies in the photography
Figure 17
Using a colour checker to correct colour deficiencies in the photography
© George Nash
 
Original image showing an engraved bovine with later tooling marks covering the lower section of the body
Figure 18
Original image showing an engraved bovine with later tooling marks covering the lower section of the body
© George Nash
 
D-Stretched image showing an engraved bovine with later tooling marks covering the lower section of the body
Figure 19
D-Stretched image showing an engraved bovine with later tooling marks covering the lower section of the body
© George Nash
 
One of at least four animals carved and painted on the ceiling of the cave
Figure 20
One of at least four animals carved and painted on the ceiling of the cave
© George Nash

Pecked outline of a probably engraved antelope (Oryx) with an internal mesh design
Figure 21
Pecked outline of a probably engraved antelope (Oryx) with an internal mesh design
© George Nash
The bovine panel, located on the ceiling of the cave comprises at least four engraved figures, one of them having been superimposed by a series of metal tool marks that extends from the lower part of the torso [Figs 18 & 19]. The four figures are interpreted as bovines and are similar in style to those found within the central part of the Al-Hagar Mountains in Oman. Recorded on several of these figures was a black charcoal(?) outline which could be a preliminary sketch outline made by the artist or maybe an addition made following their discovery. Noted from our survey were the changes in the horn arrangement of each figure, along with the distinctive back and rump sections of the animal [Fig 20].

Within the NE section of the cave, near the entrance is an engraved antelope, possibly an Oryx and a bovine [Figs 21 & 22]. The antelope has been infilled with a simple mesh motif, while the bovine is constructed as a simple outline. In addition to these two figures is a possible horse, although a further visit to the cave is required in order to verify this. Additional motifs have been discovered in the inner ceiling and walls of the cave and remain unrecorded.

Pecked outline of a bovine.  This animal indicates the presence of a grassland environment
Figure 22
Pecked outline of a bovine. This animal indicates the presence of a grassland environment
© George Nash
From this cave, two clear themes and chronological phases are recorded, the bovine panel being the earliest and probably dating to between the 5th and 7th millennium BCE (based upon the rock art chronology in central Oman). The antelope figure is considered to be later, dating to the 2nd to 4th millennium BCE, and may be contemporary with the Hafit cairns that line the lower slopes of the rock outcrop below. Close scrutiny of both sets of engravings reveals slightly different pecking techniques with the antelope on the western wall being pecked using a larger hammerstone. The bovine on the same wall is similar in style and pecking technique to those that are found on the ceiling and is therefore probably contemporary.

Where does Qarn bint Sa’ud fit?

The lithic and pottery assemblages, the funerary monuments and the rock art constitute a unique and significant archaeological resource. The site has been the focus of archaeological interest since the late 1950s. Over the relatively recent past [during the latter part of the Holocene], much of the eastern (and western) hinterland has been inundated by dune deposition. The dune formations probably overlie ancient relic land surfaces which contain spreads of lithic material that date between the Bronze Age and the Palaeolithic. This spread of lithic material indicates the significance of the Qarn bint Sa’ud site and at least 20-30,000 years of human activity.

In terms of rock art, the site has yielded many phases of prehistoric and historic activity. The caves, rock shelters and overhangs have yielded a variety of painted and engraved rock art that can be roughly associated with the large rock art assemblages from the central area of the Al-Hagar Mountains in neighbouring Oman.

The engraved images that include the pecked snake are the most complex of all rock art present within the Qarn bint Sa’ud site. Each panel appears to show a plethora of imagery, some of which is superimposed, suggesting periodic engraving events over a long period. We would stress though that the imagery from this site possesses its unique idiosyncratic form and style.

The limestone escarpment is the only visible topographic feature within the area and would have been an important focal point, meeting place and encampment for prehistoric communities. It is more than likely that early prehistoric nomadic and semi-nomadic communities used this natural focal point and others to guide them through what was a rather featureless landscape. In later prehistory, communities become sedentary and Qarn bint Sa’ud would have been used as a funerary site during the Bronze Age, suggesting a degree of permanency.

In general, the different features observed on the bulk of the flint stone tools found at the site are characteristic of a complex palimpsest, meaning that they are the result of repeated and discreet human activities taking place recurrently over a long period of time. The homogenous techno-typological patterns of stone tool manufacturing techniques and raw material diversity, however, may be indicative that these have been made by populations sharing a specific transmitted cultural knowledge. The possible Palaeolithic artefacts found at the slopes of the escarpment further attest to the recurrent visits to this landmark amidst the encroaching dune systems through the latter part of the Quaternary. The presence of rock art, as yet difficult to date reveals that prehistoric communities were settled and were probably the first communities who can lay a sedentary claim on this intriguing landscape.

Extracts of this article were published in Current World Archaeology 2022.

Suggested Reading:

Bretzke, K., 2020. The Palaeolithic record from the Central Region of the Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, in: Bretzke, K., Crassard, R., Hilbert, Y.H. (Eds.), Stone Tools of Prehistoric Arabia, Supplement to Volume 50 of the Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 15–26.

Eisenburg-Degen, D., Nash, G.H. & Schmidt, J. 2016. Inscribing history: The complex geographies of Bedouin tribal markings in the Negev Desert, Southern Israel. In L. Brady & P.S.C. Taçon (eds.) Relating to Rock Art in the Contemporary World: navigating symbolism, meaning and significance. University of Colorado Press.

Fossati, A., 2019. Messages from the Past: Rock art of the Al-Hajar Mountains. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Groucutt, H.S. & Petraglia, M.D., 2012. The Prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula: Deserts, Dispersals, and Demography. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 21(3): 113-125.
Harman, J., 2008 [2005]. Using Decorrelation Stretch to Enhance Rock Art Images. http://dstretch.com/AlgorithmDescription.html

Hilbert, Y.H., 2014. Khashabian A Late Paleolithic industry from Dhofar, Southern Oman, BAR International Series 2601. Archeopress, Oxford.

Hilbert, Y.H., Usik, V.I., Galletti, C.S., Morley, M.W., Parton, A., Clark-Balzan, L., Schwenninger, J.-L., Linnenlucke, L.P., Roberts, R.G., Jacobs, Z., Rose, J.I., 2015. Archaeological evidence for indigenous human occupation of Southern Arabia at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition: The case of al-Hatab in Dhofar, Southern Oman. .Paléorient. 41: 31–49.

Nash, G. H., Fox, Y., von Petzinger, D., von Petzinger, G., Ruiz Redonder, A., Ruiz Lopez, J.F. & Hibert, Y.H., 2022. Unlocking a hidden landscape: Preliminary fieldwork at Qarn bint Sa’ud, Abu Dhabi. .Current World Archaeology. Vol. 116, 32-38.

Nayeen, M.A., 2000. The Rock Art of Arabia. Hyderabad: Hyderabad Publishers.

Tikriti, W. Y. A., 2011. Rock art in Abu Dhabi Emirate. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Culture and Heritage.

Members of the Origins Project Team
Members of the Origins Project Team
© George Nash

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→ Fundraising for Rock Art by Promoting Its Values
by Terry Little
26 April 2017

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by Nicholas Hall
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→ Fundraising for Rock Art by Promoting Its Values
by Terry Little
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Bradshaw Foundation Donate Friends
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Bradshaw Foundation YouTube
Rock Art Network
Rock Art Network
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Bradshaw Foundation Donate Friends
LATEST ARTICLE
Bradshaw Foundation Donate Friends
→ Prehistomania
by Richard Kuba
13/06/2024
RECENT ARTICLES
Bradshaw Foundation Donate Friends
→ Women Hunters in Indian Rock Art
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak
8/03/2024
→ Vingen Rock Art in Norway at Risk
by Rock Art Network
6/02/2024
→ Professor emeritus Knut Arne Helskog is awarded the King's Medal of Merit
by Rock Art Network
14/12/2023
→ Escaped slaves, rock art and resistance in the Cape Colony, South Africa
by Sam Challis
5/12/2023
→ Markwe Cave, Zimbabwe
by Aron Mazel
30/11/2023
→ Art and Influence, Presence and Navigation in Southern African Forager Landscapes
by Sam Challis
21/11/2023
→ History debunked: Endeavours in rewriting the San past from the Indigenous rock art archive
by Sam Challis
15/11/2023
→ Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and forager theories of disease in nineteenth century southern Africa, and its implications for understanding images of conflict in San rock art
by Sam Challis
10/11/2023
→ Ancient Aboriginal rock carvings vandalised
by Rock Art Network
6/11/2023
→  Two NSW men found guilty of using oily handprints to damage sacred Uluru cave art
by Rock Art Network
3/11/2023
→  Reflecting on the abundance of sheep and baboon paintings in Junction Shelter, Didima Gorge, South Africa
by Aron Mazel
2/11/2023
→  Rock Art Sites Protection and Guides Training In Satpura Tiger Reserve
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak
26/09/2023
→  Rock art and frontier conflict in Southeast Asia: Insights from direct radiocarbon ages for the large human figures of Gua Sireh, Sarawak
by Paul Taçon
24/08/2023
→  Beginning of a Rock Art Journey - Recording Paintings in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg 1979 - 1980
by Aron Mazel
13/06/2023
→  Murujuga's rock art is at risk – where is the outrage?
by Paul Taçon
5/06/2023
→  Identifying the artists of some of Australia's earliest art
by Paul Taçon
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→ Between Monument and Water: Burial rites, location of megalithic monuments and rock art of the Kilmartin Valley, Argyll, Western Scotland (Stage 1 of the Motifs and Monuments Project)
by George Nash
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→ Rock Art Training and Recording Petroglyphs in Laos
by Noel Hidalgo Tan
10/02/2023
→ Unlocking a hidden landscape
by George Nash
01/02/2023
→ 'Powerful Images - Indian rock art from its earliest times to recent times'
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak, Pilar Fatás Monforte
29/11/2022
→ Signalling and Performance: Ancient Rock Art in Britain and Ireland
by Aron Mazel, George Nash
21/09/2022
→ Histories of Australian Rock Art Research
by Paul S.C. Taçon, Sally K. May, Ursula K. Frederick, Jo McDonald
07/07/2022
→ Rock Art and Tribal Art: Madhya Pradesh
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak
26/07/2022
→ Marra Wonga: Archaeological and contemporary First Nations interpretations of one of central Queensland’s largest rock art sites
by Paul Taçon
20/07/2022
→ David Coulson MBE
by David Coulson
16 June 2022
→  Extraordinary Back-to-Back Human and Animal Figures in the Art of Western Arnhem Land, Australia: One of the World's Largest Assemblages
by Paul Taçon
25 April 2022
→  An online course by SEAMEO Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (SPAFA)
by Noel Hidalgo Tan
20 April 2022
→  Cupules and Vulvas in the Alwar area, Rajasthan
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak
14 March 2022
→  Color Engenders Life - Hunter-Gatherer Rock Art in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands
by Carolyn Boyd & Pilar Fatás
02 March 2022
→  David Coulson receives RGS Cherry Kearton Award
by David Coulson
07 February 2022
→  Vandalised petroglyphs in Texas
by Johannes H. N. Loubser
06 February 2022
→  Hand Stencils in Chhattisgarh
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak
05 February 2022
→  And then they were gone: Destruction of the Good Hope 1 rock paintings
by Aron Mazel
28 January 2022
→  Early masterpieces: San hunter-gatherer shaded paintings of the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg and surrounding areas
by Aron Mazel
8 September 2021
→  Aїr Mountains Safari - Sahara
by David Coulson
17 August 2021
→  The Neolithic rock art passage tombs of Anglesey as brand-new virtual tours
by Ffion Reynolds
21 June 2021
→  A Map from the Memory of the World
by Janette Deacon
8 June 2021
→  The dangers of 'Discovering' rock art
by Peter Robinson
1 June 2021
→  Dharkundi and Deurkuthar Rock Art Sites in Central India
by Meenakshi Dubey-Pathak
1 June 2021
→ Dating the Earth and its Rock Art
by Neville Agnew
23 May 2021
→ Studying the Source of Dust Using a Simple and Effective Methodology:
by Tom McClintock
30 April 2021
→ ABC Radio National 'Nightlife' with Philip Clark - 'Exploring the wonders of cave art in Australia'
by Professor Paul S.C. Taçon & Dr Josephine McDonald
30 April 2021
→ A Painted Treasure - San hunter-gatherer visual engagement with Didima Gorge (South Africa)
by Aron Mazel
10 March 2021
→ L'Atlas de la grotte Chauvet-Pont d'Arc
by
Jean-jacques Delannoy &
Jean-Michel Geneste
1 February 2021
→ Oldest cave painting found in Indonesia
by Rock Art Network
14 January 2021
→ Graffiti Dates and Names as a Rock Art Conservation and Management Tool
by Johannes H. N. Loubser
29 October 2020
→ Animals in Rock Art
by Aron Mazel
7 October 2020
→ Reflecting Back: 40 Years Since ‘A Survey of the Rock Art in the Natal Drakensberg’ Project (1978-1981)
by Aron Mazel
29 September 2020
→ Art on the Rocks in the Age of COVID-19
by Neville Agnew & Tom McClintock
15 September 2020
→ Explore Cederberg rock art from your home
by Janette Deacon
9 September 2020
→ The Continuum of Art: The relationship between Ice Age art and contemporary art and how an understanding of the former can help engage a modern audience
by Peter Robinson
16 August 2020
→ Illuminating the Realm of the Dead: The Rock Art within the Dolmen de Soto, Andalucía, Southern Spain
by George Nash
29 July 2020
→ Rock Art Adventurous Field Work during COVID-19 in the Southernmost of South America
by María Isabel Hernández Llosas
9 June 2020
→ The Final Passage - FAQ
by Jean-Michel Geneste
1 June 2020
→ Experts rush to map fire-hit rock art
by Andrew Bock
15 May 2020
→ Sacred Indigenous rock art sites under threat
by Amy van den Berg
12 May 2020
→ Virtual Meeting
by Ben Dickins
22 April 2020
→ The Bradshaw Foundation Launches the Rock Art Network Website
by Wendy All
23 March 2020
→ The aftermath of fire damage to important rock art at the Baloon Cave tourist destination, Carnarvon Gorge, Queensland, Australia
by Paul Taçon
24 November 2019
→ The removal and camouflage of graffiti: The art of creating chaos out of order and order out of chaos
by Johannes H. N. Loubser
11 November 2019
→ The Histories of Australian Rock Art Research symposium, 8-9 December 2019, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
by Paul Tacon
5 November 2019
→ San rock art exhibition at the National Museum & Research Center of Altamira
by Aron Mazel
17 September 2019
→ The 2018 Art on the Rocks Colloquium
by Wendy All
2 December 2018
→ Preserving Our Ancient Art Galleries: Volunteerism, Collaboration, and the Rock Art Archive
by Wendy All
1 December 2017
→ Altamira and the New Technology for Public Access
by Pilar Fatás Monforte
30 April 2017
→ From the Chauvet Cave to the Caverne du Pont d’Arc: Methods and Strategies for a Replica to Preserve the Heritage of a Decorated Cave That Cannot Be Made Accessible to the Public
by Jean-Michel Geneste
29 April 2017
→ Emerging Consciousness and New Media: The Management of Rock Art in Southeast Asia and New Opportunities for Communicating Its Significance
by Noel Hidalgo Tan
28 April 2017
→ Step by Step: The Power of Participatory Planning with Local Communities for Rock Art Management and Tourism
by Nicholas Hall
27 April 2017
→ Fundraising for Rock Art by Promoting Its Values
by Terry Little
26 April 2017
Bradshaw Foundation Donate Friends
Support our work & become a
Friend of the Foundation
 
 
 
Bradshaw Foundation YouTube
Rock Art Network
Rock Art Network
Rock Art Network
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Bradshaw Foundation iShop Shop Store
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