The Bradshaw Foundation : Glossary of Terms & Definitions

Glossary of Terms & Definitions | H

 
 
 
H

hallucinogent Mind-or mood-altering drug or substance that induces hallucinations.
hand axe A large stone tool made by chipping a rock on both sides into a pear- shape, dating from about 1.4 million to 100,000 years ago. One end is pointed and the other curved as though made to be held in the hand and not mounted in a handle. The aesthetic symmetry often displayed in hand axe manufacture far exceeds the needs of tool utility, suggesting that the objects may have been made for purposes other than tools, perhaps for tokens.
Holocene or Postglacial The current geological period, beginning about 10,000 years ago, after the Pleistocene.
hominids A primate belonging to a family of which the modern human being is the only species still in existence. Family: Hominidae.
Homo erectus (from the Latin erigere, 'to put up, set upright') is an extinct species of hominid that originated in Africa, and spread as far as China and Java, from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the later Pleistocene, about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago. There is still disagreement on the subject of the exact classification, ancestry, and progeny of H. Erectus.
Homo ergaster [Greek 'work'] is an extinct species of hominid that lived in eastern and southern Africa from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the early Pleistocene, about 1.8-1.3 million years ago. Now widely thought to be the direct ancestor of later hominids such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis rather than Asian Homo erectus. It is one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, possibly descended from, or sharing a common ancestor with Homo habilis.
Homo floresiensis Meaning 'Flores Man', nicknamed 'hobbit', a possible species of extinct human discovered in 2003 on the island of Flores in Indonesia. Partial skeletons of nine individuals have been recovered, including one complete skull. Research is attempting to determine whether the remains represent a species distinct from modern humans. This hominin is remarkable for its small body and brain and for its survival until relatively recent times (possibly as recently as 12,000 years ago). Recovered alongside the skeletal remains were stone tools from archaeological horizons ranging from 94,000 to 13,000 years ago. The remains themselves have been dated to between 38,000 and 13,000 years ago.
Homo habilis 'Handy Man' is the earliest known species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2.3 to 1.4 million years ago at the beginning of the Pleistocene period. H. habilis was short and had disproportionately long arms compared to modern humans; H. habilis had a cranial capacity slightly less than half of the size of modern humans. Despite the ape-like morphology of the bodies, H. habilis remains are often accompanied by primitive stone tools.
Homo heidelbergensis 'Heidelberg Man' is an extinct species of the genus Homo which may be the direct ancestor of both Homo neanderthalensis in Europe and Homo sapiens. The best evidence found for these hominin date between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago. The stone tool technology was very close to that of the Acheulean tools used by Homo erectus.
Homo sapiens 'Wise Man'. Anatomically modern human (AMH) or early modern human in paleoanthropology refers to early individuals of Homo sapiens with an appearance similar to that of modern humans. Anatomically modern humans evolved from archaic Homo sapiens in the Middle Palaeolithic about 200,000 years ago. The oldest fossil remains of anatomically modern humans are the Omo remains that date to 195,000 years ago, and from Herto in Ethiopia [150,000 years] and Skhul in Israel [ 90,000 years].
Homo sapiens sapiens The subspecies of Homo sapiens that includes all modern humans, from approximately 135,000 years ago.
human evolution Relating to, involving, or characteristic of human beings.
 
 
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