The Bradshaw Foundation : Glossary of Terms & Definitions

Glossary of Terms & Definitions | C

 
 
 
C

Cactus Hill An archaeological site in southeastern Virginia, United States, yielding multiple levels of early occupation. Artifacts include unfluted bifacial stone tools with dates ranging from approximately 15,000 to 17,000 years ago. Further charcoal deposits retrieved at the site date to as early as 19,700 years ago, although these deposits may have been made by forest fires.
carbon dating Also known as Carbon 14 method and radio-metric dating. A scientific technique for determining when organic remains such as charcoal, bone, shell, and plant material died. Organic matter contains radioactive carbon-14 isotopes, which decay over time at a known rate. Carbon dating measures the remaining volume of carbon-14 isotopes in matter, providing an approximate age since death. Although often pigments used in rock painting contained an organic binder such as blood, there is usually too little pigment remaining on the rock to make direct dating possible.
cave art see rock art; parietal art.
cave paintings Stone Age painting. A painting made on the wall of a cave by Palaeolithic people. See rock art; parietal art.
Chatelperronian The earliest culture of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and south western France and northern Spain, deriving its name from the site of La Grotte des Fees in Chatelperron, France. This period in Europe, roughly between 35,000 and 29,000 years ago, was occupied by Neanderthals and modern humans together. Toothed stone tools and flint knives with a single cutting edge and a blunt, curved back were characteristic. Some evidence of jewellery.
Chauvet A cave in the Ardeche department of southern France that contains the earliest known cave paintings, as well as other evidence of Upper Palaeolithic life. It was discovered in 1994, and subsequently scientifically documented by the team of Dr. Jean Clottes. It is considered one of the most significant prehistoric sites, with some of the oldest art created 32,000 years ago.
american rock art archive
Chauvet Cave
chronology The order in which events are placed, irrespective of a time scale. Thus, rock art periods are listed in order of occurrence, although precise dates are unknown and considerable overlap occurred.
claviform Claviform a geometric sign, usually red, comprising a vertical line with a small loop on one side of its upper part. Generally attributed to the Magdalenian [17,000 to 10,500 years ago]
Clovis culture A prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture that first appears 11,500 RCYBP [radiocarbon years before present], at the end of the last glacial period, characterized by the manufacture of Clovis points and distinctive bone and ivory tools. A Clovis projectile point was created by using bifacial percussion flaking [each face is flaked on both edges alternatively with a percussor]. Artifacts of the Clovis people are found throughout most of the United States and as far south as Panama.
Clovis First The predominant hypothesis among archaeologists in the latter half of the 20th century that the people associated with the Clovis culture were the first inhabitants of the Americas. The primary support for this was that no solid evidence of pre-Clovis human inhabitation had been found.
Cosquer The Cosquer cave is located near Cap Morgiou, Marseille, France. The entrance is now under sea-level. The Upper Palaeolithic paintings and carvings have been dated to 27,000 BP [Gravettian].
american rock art archive
Cosquer Cave
Cro-Magnon People A term to describe the oldest modern people in Europe, whose ancestors evolved in Africa. Some of them migrated to Europe, between about 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, and a few reached Western Europe by 40,000 B.P. The name derives from the cave of Cro-Magnon in southwest France, where the first specimen was found.
cupule Cupule a hemispherical depression or pit pecked or ground into the rock surface; also called cup mark. Considered by some to be early forms of art, by others as purely functional. Possibly both.
curvilinear Consisting of curved lines.
 
 
bradshaw foundation donate help
Mailing List

Email Sign-Up
website updates

Email

First Name

Last Name

Country

iShop
bradshaw foundation ishop tshirt
Homepage About the Foundation Contact Us Facebook News Articles Twitter List of Research Papers Professor Stephen Oppenheimer Travel Index About the Expeditions Forthcoming Expeditions Bespoke Expeditions Enquire Practical Information History of Exploration Welcome to the iShop Film Downloads DVD's Sculpture Prints Clothing Messenger Bag eBooks INORA Downloads About iLecture Films Shipping & Handling iLectures In Conversation Video Stories Travel Films Read the reviews Join the free Mailing List Bradshaw Foundation Facebook Friends of the Foundation Archive Index World's Oldest Rock Art Africa Documentary Films South Africa RARI Giraffe Carvings Niger Namibia Western Central Africa Africa Paintings Gallery Tanzania The Tuareg People Tuareg Salt Caravans Gilf Kebir Archive Index San Rock Art Paintings San Bushman San Rock Art Film Origins Centre Johannesburg Archive Index Arizona Baja California Coso Range Nevada Oregon Territory Australia Archive Index Introduction Bradshaw Paintings Kimberley Region The Unambal Hugh Brown Leif Thiele Gallery Dan Clark Grahame Walsh Ian Wilson Bradshaws / Gwion Gwion Archive Index Introduction Origins of the British Stonehenge Sounds of Stonehenge The British Museum British Isles Megaliths Gower Peninsula Rock Art Mendip Hills Prehistory Northumberland Rock Art Red Lady of Paviland Stone Age Mammoth Abattoir Archive Index Yinchuan Museum Rock Art Festival Field Trip Gallery Itinerant Creeds Inner Mongolia & Ningxia Vanishing Civilization Life in Rock Art (PDF) Tibet Tibet Photographs Dazu Rock Carvings Tiger Motif Archive Index Chauvet Cave Lascaux Cave Niaux Cave Cosquer Cave Portable Art Research Paper Tuc d'Audoubert Bison Dr. Jean Clottes Index UNESCO World Heritage Introduction Cave Paintings Gallery Visiting the Chauvet Cave Return to Chauvet Cave Investigating the Cave Venus & Sorcerer Werner Herzog Film Chauvet Publications India Archive Index Rock Art Central India Pachmarhi Hills India Rock Art Gallery Middle East Archive Index Middle East Inroduction Rock Art of Iran Rock Art of Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Rock Art Ancient Geometry Middle East Colonisation Tanum Rock Art Museum Thor Heyerdahl Archive Index Introduction America's Oldest Art? Pedra Furada Bolivian Rock Art Campeche Island - Brazil Checta Petroglyphs - Peru Cueva de las Manos Santa Catarina Island - Brazil Rock Art in Britain Campeche Rock Art Petroglyphs El Salvador - Corinto Cave Hand Rock Art Paintings Tibetan Rock Art United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Yinchuan Rock Art Museum Introduction Ice Age Art Gallery Claire Artemyz Jill Cook Interview Cycladic Introduction Cycladic Gallery Introduction Geometric Signs Chart Research Methodology Geometric Signs in France Sign Types/Countries/Regions Bibliography Ancient Symbols in Rock Art Newsletter Archive Download Issues Introduction Genetic Map Professor Stephen Oppenheimer Further Reading Origins of the British BBC Documentary Origins Index Origins Overview 13 Big Questions Stanley Ambrose Homo Floresiensis Herto Skulls Homo Dmanisi Liujiang Skull Introduction Sentinels in Stone Easter Island Rock Art Birdman Cult / Motif Sea & Marine Creatures Design & Motifs Dr Georgia Lee Easter Island Map Contemporary Art Glossary Conclusion Thor Heyerdahl Introduction When & Who Built It? How Was It Built? The Area Sounds of Stonehenge Meaning of a Pyramid Pyramid Studies Pyramid Superstructure Pyramid Substructure Pyramid Preparations Pyramid Building Saqqara Nabil Swelim Temples of Malta and Gozo Research in the Caucasus The Keselo Foundation Homo Dmanisi Ancient Toolmakers Index Introduction Descent into the Cave The Decorated Caves Shamanistic Experience Spring Initiation Rites Summary Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Professor John P. Miller Motif: Eternal Index Han Meilin Bruce Radke Christian Tuki Gordon Ellis-Brown Site Map Search the Website Glossary of Terms & Definition Podcast on iTunes Other Websites Contact the Foundation