Talking Stone Rock Art Coso America USA Documentary Film

STONEHENGE

STONEHENGE FILM

Page 1/4
 
 
 

STONEHENGE - THE AGE OF THE MEGALITHS

 
The late Professor Richard Atkinson, leading authority on Stonehenge, once replied to the question about the purpose of this monument: "There is one short, simple and perfectly correct answer. We do not know and we shall probably never know". Perhaps one of the reasons for this uncertainty is that Stonehenge evolved. It was not a constant monument, but a continuous one. Whilst this certainly meant that the area’s importance was constant, the purpose of the monument itself was almost without doubt varied.
 
Stonehenge Stonehenge Stonehenge
 
Throughout prehistory, around the world, men and women have always expressed themselves within their landscape - taken time out from subsistence to go to the enormous effort of creating a physical expression that took life and existence onto another level. The Neolithic period between 5000 and 1000 BC was no exception.
 
Stonehenge
TRANSITION TO FARMING
click photo for enlargement
The distinguishing feature of the Neolithic - the new stone age - was a gradual transition from hunting and gathering to farming. The spread of agriculture over Europe represented a major cultural transition. It was a gradual process, and took several millenia after the earliest farming in the Near East. One reason for the delay was the climate - north western Europe was colder, and these conditions required adaptation.
 
On a global perspective, agriculture was able to support increasingly large numbers of people, which led to new forms of political and social organisation. Societies became more hierarchical.
 
Stonehenge
AGE OF THE MEGALITH
click photo for enlargement
Leaders were now buried with marks of their special status, ranging from the the treasures of the graves of the Tiszapolgar cemetary on the Great Hungarian Plain to the splendour of the Egyptian pyramids. Craftsmen thrived in this new social milieu. New materials came into use - gold, copper, and its alloy, bronze. The smelting and casting of metals began to be developed. The growing beaurocracies encouraged the adoption of writing. Larger city states stimulated the development of warfare, which stimulated larger defences. The first cities were being born in the fertile valleys of the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the Indus and the Yellow river. These were the four primary civilisations of the Old world.
 
But in Europe, it was the age of the megalith, and here, perhaps the most prestigious megalithic monument is Stonehenge, presiding on the rolling hills of Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England.
 

WHAT IS STONEHENGE?

 
Stonehenge
STANDING IN OPEN GRASSLAND
click photo for enlargement
Stonehenge is a megalithic monument. Megaliths, literally meaning large stone slabs, had become the most conspicuous forms of expression within the European landscape for the people of this time. Indeed, by 2000 BC, Stonehenge had become the ritual centre of southern Britain. Archaeologists define a 'henge' as an earthwork consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch.
 
At Stonehenge, the stone circle enclosure is over 300 feet in diameter, containing a complex arrangement of ritual pits, abandoned stone holes and circles made from bluestones and sarsen stones, approached by an avenue. Many henges were created in this Neolithic period, but what makes Stonehenge unique is that it had trilithons - towering stone structures measuring over 24 feet in height. Standing in open grassland, it can be seen from afar at any viewpoint. One can easily imagine the effect this monument would have had on the Neolithic mind.
 
 
 
Bradshaw Foundation
 
 
bradshaw foundation donate help
Mailing List

Email Sign-Up
website updates

Email

First Name

Last Name

Country

bradshaw foundation twitter BradshawFND
Prints
Podcast
bradshaw foundation podcast
DVD
bradshaw foundation ishop dvd
Homepage About the Foundation Contact Us News Articles Twitter Travel Index About the Expeditions Forthcoming Expeditions Bespoke Expeditions Enquire Practical Information History of Exploration Welcome to the iShop Film Downloads DVD's Sculpture Prints Clothing Messenger Bag eBooks INORA Downloads About iLecture Films Shipping & Handling iLectures In Conversation Video Stories Travel Films Read the reviews Join the free Mailing List Friends of the Foundation Archive Index World's Oldest Rock Art Africa Documentary Films South Africa RARI Giraffe Carvings Niger Namibia Western Central Africa Africa Paintings Gallery Tanzania The Tuareg People Tuareg Salt Caravans Gilf Kebir Archive Index San Rock Art Paintings San Bushman San Rock Art Film Origins Centre Johannesburg Archive Index Arizona Baja California Coso Range Nevada Oregon Territory Australia Archive Index Introduction Bradshaw Paintings Kimberley Region The Unambal Hugh Brown Leif Thiele Gallery Dan Clark Grahame Walsh Ian Wilson Bradshaws / Gwion Gwion Archive Index Introduction Origins of the British Stonehenge Sounds of Stonehenge The British Museum British Isles Megaliths Gower Peninsula Rock Art Mendip Hills Prehistory Northumberland Rock Art Red Lady of Paviland Stone Age Mammoth Abattoir Archive Index Yinchuan Museum Rock Art Festival Field Trip Gallery Itinerant Creeds Inner Mongolia & Ningxia Vanishing Civilization Life in Rock Art (PDF) Tibet Tibet Photographs Dazu Rock Carvings Tiger Motif Archive Index Chauvet Cave Lascaux Cave Niaux Cave Cosquer Cave Portable Art Research Paper Tuc d'Audoubert Bison Dr. Jean Clottes Index Introduction Cave Paintings Gallery Visiting the Chauvet Cave Return to Chauvet Cave Investigating the Cave Venus & Sorcerer Werner Herzog Film Chauvet Publications India Archive Index Rock Art Central India Pachmarhi Hills India Rock Art Gallery Middle East Archive Index Middle East Inroduction Rock Art of Iran Rock Art of Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Rock Art Ancient Geometry Middle East Colonisation Tanum Rock Art Museum Thor Heyerdahl Archive Index Introduction America's Oldest Art? Pedra Furada Bolivian Rock Art Campeche Island - Brazil Checta Petroglyphs - Peru Cueva de las Manos Santa Catarina Island - Brazil Rock Art in Britain Campeche Rock Art Petroglyphs El Salvador - Corinto Cave Hand Rock Art Paintings Tibetan Rock Art United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Yinchuan Rock Art Museum Introduction Ice Age Art Gallery Claire Artemyz Jill Cook Interview Cycladic Introduction Cycladic Gallery Introduction Geometric Signs Chart Research Methodology Geometric Signs in France Sign Types/Countries/Regions Bibliography Ancient Symbols in Rock Art Newsletter Archive Download Issues Introduction Genetic Map Professor Stephen Oppenheimer Further Reading Origins of the British BBC Documentary Origins Index Origins Overview 13 Big Questions Stanley Ambrose Homo Floresiensis Herto Skulls Homo Dmanisi Liujiang Skull Introduction Sentinels in Stone Easter Island Rock Art Birdman Cult / Motif Sea & Marine Creatures Design & Motifs Dr Georgia Lee Easter Island Map Contemporary Art Glossary Conclusion Thor Heyerdahl Introduction When & Who Built It? How Was It Built? The Area Sounds of Stonehenge Meaning of a Pyramid Pyramid Studies Pyramid Superstructure Pyramid Substructure Pyramid Preparations Pyramid Building Saqqara Nabil Swelim Temples of Malta and Gozo Research in the Caucasus The Keselo Foundation Homo Dmanisi Ancient Toolmakers Index Introduction Descent into the Cave The Decorated Caves Shamanistic Experience Spring Initiation Rites Summary Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Professor John P. Miller Motif: Eternal Index Han Meilin Bruce Radke Christian Tuki Gordon Ellis-Brown Site Map Search the Website Glossary of Terms & Definition Podcast on iTunes List of Research Papers Other Websites Contact the Foundation